After the fall of the Roman empire, it was occupied by the Heruli and Ostrogoths, and later the seat of a Lombard duchy, then became a county under the Franks. In the first half of the 11th century it was under Countess Adelaide of Susa, who married Oddo, Count of Savoy, son of Umberto Biancamano. In 1294 Amedeus V gave the fiefdom to the Acaya princes, who kept the domain until 1418, when Amedeus VIII, the first Savoy Duke, unified all domains of his dynasty, including Turin, where he often loved to dwell.
In 1536 Torino was conquered by the French and only in 1562 and was recovered after the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis by Emanuele Filiberto, who chose it as his capital and built a fortified citadel. Occupied by the armies of Napoleon in 1798 and the following year by the Austrians, it returned to France after the Marengo Battle in 1800, and was transformed into a French Department. In 1814 it was restored to the House of Savoy under Victor Emmanuel I, who to render thanks erected the Church of the Great Mother of God.
From 1821 to 1848 it was central in the Italian independence movement of the Risorgimento, and in 1861 was proclaimed capital of the Kingdom of Italy; the capital was then moved to Florence in 1864, and to Rome in 1870.Among the leaders in Italian industrialization, Torino was the seat of the earliest Italian automotive industries - the Spa, Italy, Lancia, Fiat -, followed by textile and mechanic factories. Since then Torino has achieved prosperity and progress in industry, commerce and culture.
In the 2001 census, Turin was the fourth largest city in Italy, with a large proportion of people with southern-Italian background as a consequence of the mass immigration of the second half of the twentieth century, and a significant presence of immigrants from abroad.
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